Bike sharing: A review of evidence on impacts and processes of implementation and operation

Bicycle-sharing system - Wikipedia

Despite the popularity of bike sharing, there is a lack of evidence on existing schemes and whether they achieved their objectives. This paper is concerned with identifying and critically interpreting the available evidence on bike sharing to date, on both impacts and processes of implementation and operation. The existing evidence suggests that bike sharing can increase cycling levels but needs complementary pro-cycling measures and wider support to sustainable urban mobility to thrive. Whilst predominantly enabling commuting, bike sharing allows users to undertake other key economic, social and leisure activities. Benefits include improved health, increased transport choice and convenience, reduced travel times and costs, and improved travel experience. These benefits are unequally distributed, since users are typically male, younger and in more advantaged socio-economic positions than average. There is no evidence that bike sharing significantly reduces traffic congestion, carbon emissions and pollution. From a process perspective, bike sharing can be delivered through multiple governance models. A key challenge to operation is network rebalancing, while facilitating factors include partnership working and inclusive scheme promotion. The paper suggests directions for future research and concludes that high-quality monitoring impact/process data, systematically and consistently collected, as well as innovative and inclusive evaluation methods are needed.